Ribosome
Structure
and Function

Publications

Jin, H., Kelley, A. C., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2011). Crystal structure of the hybrid state of ribosome in complex with the guanosine triphosphatase release factor 3. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108, 15798-15803.Medline Abstract or PDF file

Schmeing T.M., Voorhees R.M., Kelley A.C., and Ramakrishnan V. (2011). How mutations in tRNA distant from the anticodon affect the fidelity of decoding. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 18, 432-436.Medline Abstract or PDF file

Ramakrishnan, V. (2011). Molecular biology. The eukaryotic ribosome (Perspective). Science 331, 681-682. Medline Abstract or PDF file

Ramakrishnan, V. (2011). Structural studies on decoding, termination and translocation in the bacterial ribosome. In Ribosomes Structure, Function and Dynamics, Rodnina, M.V., Wintermeyer, W. and Green, R., eds. (Vienna: Springer). PDF file

Voorhees, R. M., Schmeing, T. M., Kelley, A. C., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2010). The mechanism for activation of GTP hydrolysis on the ribosome. Science 330, 835-838. Medline Abstract or PDF file. See also Response to comment by Liljas et al. on this paper

Ng, C. L., Lang, K., Meenan, N. A., Sharma, A., Kelley, A. C., Kleanthous, C., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2010). Structural basis for 16S ribosomal RNA cleavage by the cytotoxic domain of colicin E3. Nat Struct Mol Biol 17, 1241-1246. Medline Abstract or PDF file

Ramakrishnan, V. (2010). Unraveling the Structure of the Ribosome (Nobel Lecture). Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 49, 4355-4380. Medline Abstract or PDF file

Jin, H., Kelley, A. C., Loakes, D., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2010). Structure of the 70S ribosome bound to release factor 2 and a substrate analog provides insights into catalysis of peptide release. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107, 8593-8598. Medline Abstract or PDF file

Ramakrishnan, V. (2009). The ribosome: some hard facts about its structure and hot air about its evolution. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 74, 25-33. Medline Abstract or PDF file

Neubauer, C., Gao, Y. G., Andersen, K. R., Dunham, C. M., Kelley, A. C., Hentschel, J., Gerdes, K., Ramakrishnan, V., and Brodersen, D. E. (2009). The structural basis for mRNA recognition and cleavage by the ribosome-dependent endonuclease RelE. Cell 139, 1084-1095. Medline Abstract or PDF file

Schmeing, T. M., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2009). What recent ribosome structures have revealed about the mechanism of translation. Nature 461, 1234-1242. Medline Abstract or PDF file

Schmeing, T. M., Voorhees, R. M., Kelley, A. C., Gao, Y. G., Murphy, F. V. 4th., Weir, J. R., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2009). The crystal structure of the ribosome bound to EF-Tu and aminoacyl-tRNA. Science 326, 688-694. Medline Abstract or PDF file

Gao, Y. G., Selmer, M., Dunham, C. M., Weixlbaumer, A., Kelley, A. C., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2009). The structure of the ribosome with elongation factor G trapped in the posttranslocational state. Science 326, 694-699. Medline Abstract or PDF file

Schuette, J. C., Murphy, F. V. t., Kelley, A. C., Weir, J. R., Giesebrecht, J., Connell, S. R., Loerke, J., Mielke, T., Zhang, W., Penczek, P. A., Ramakrishnan, V., and Spahn, C. M. (2009). GTPase activation of elongation factor EF-Tu by the ribosome during decoding. Embo J 28, 755-765.Medline Abstract or PDF file

Voorhees, R. M., Weixlbaumer, A., Loakes, D., Kelley, A. C., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2009). Insights into substrate stabilization from snapshots of the peptidyl transferase center of the intact 70S ribosome. Nat Struct Mol Biol 16, 528-533. Medline Abstract or PDF file

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Weixlbaumer, A., Jin, H., Neubauer, C., Voorhees, R.M., Petry, S., Kelley, A.C., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2008). Insights into translational termination from the structure of RF2 bound to the ribosome. Science 322, 953-956. Medline Abstract or PDF file.

Ramakrishnan, V. (2008). What we have learned from ribosome structures. (The Heatley Medal Lecture). Biochem Soc Trans 36, 567-74. Medline Abstract or PDF file.

 Weixlbaumer A, Petry S, Dunham CM, Selmer M, Kelley AC, Ramakrishnan V (2007). Crystal structure of the ribosome recycling factor bound to the ribosome. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 14, 733-737. Medline Abstract or PDF file.

Weixlbaumer, A., Murphy, F. V. 4th., Dziergowska, A., Malkiewicz, A., Vendeix, F. A., Agris, P. F., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2007). Mechanism for expanding the decoding capacity of transfer RNAs by modification of uridines. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 14, 498-502. Medline Abstract or PDF file.

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Passmore, L. A., Schmeing, T. M., Maag, D., Applefield, D. J., Acker, M. G., Algire, M. A., Lorsch, J. R., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2007). The eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF1 and eIF1A induce an open conformation of the 40S ribosome. Mol Cell 26, 41-50. Medline Abstract or PDF file

Dunham, C. M., Selmer, M., Phelps, S. S., Kelley, A. C., Suzuki, T., Joseph, S., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2007). Structures of tRNAs with an expanded anticodon loop in the decoding center of the 30S ribosomal subunit. RNA 13, 817-823. Medline Abstract or PDF file.

Selmer, M., Dunham, C.M., Murphy, F.V IV, Weixlbaumer, A., Petry S., Kelley, A.C., Weir, J.R. and Ramakrishnan, V. (2006). Structure of the 70S ribosome complexed with mRNA and tRNA. Science , 313, 1935-1942. Medline Abstract or PDF file.

Petry, S., Brodersen, D.E, Murphy, F.V. IV, Dunham, C.M., Selmer, M., Tarry, M.J., Kelley, A.C., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2005). Crystal structures of the ribosome in complex with release factors RF1 and RF2 bound to a cognate stop codon. Cell 123, 1255-1266. Medline Abstract or PDF file.

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Daviter, T., Murphy, F.V. 4th, Ramakrishnan, V (2005). A renewed focus on transfer RNA. Science, 308, 1123-4. PDF file

Ogle, J.M. and Ramakrishnan, V. (2005).Structural insights into translational fidelity. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 74, 129-177.Medline Abstract or PDF file.

Murphy, F.V. IV and Ramakrishnan, V. (2004). Structure of a purine-purine wobble base pair in the decoding center of the ribosome. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 11, 1251-1252. Medline Abstract or PDF file.

Murphy, F.V. IV, Ramakrishnan, V., Malkiewicz, A. and Agris, P.F.(2004). The role of modifications in codon discrimination by tRNALysUUU. Nat.Struct Mol. Biol. 11, 1186-1191 Medline Abstract or PDF file.

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Ogle, J.M., Carter, A.P. and Ramakrishnan, V. (2003). Insights into the decoding mechanism from recent ribosome structures. Trends Bioch. Sci. 28, 259-266.Medline Abstract or PDF file or look at supplementary animations of 30S subunit movements)

Valle, M., Gillet, R., Kaur, S., Henne, A., Ramakrishnan, V. and Frank, J. (2003). Visualizing tmRNA entry into a stalled ribosome. Science 300, 127-30.Medline Abstract or PDF file

Ogle, J.M., Murphy, F.V. IV, Tarry, M.J. and Ramakrishnan V. (2002). Selection of tRNA by the ribosome requires a transition from an open to a closed form. Cell 111, 721-32. Medline Abstract or PDF file or look at supplementary information and animations)

Ramakrishnan, V. (2002) Ribosome structure and the mechanism of translation. Cell 108, 557-572.Medline Abstract or PDF file

Brodersen, D. E., Clemons W. M. Jr., Carter, A. P., Wimberly, B. T., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2002). Crystal structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit from Thermus thermophilus. Proteins of the 30S subunit and their interactions with 16S RNA. J. Mol. Biol. 316, 723 - 766. Medline Abstract or PDF file.

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Brodersen, D.E., Carter, A.P., Clemons, W.M. Jr., Morgan-Warren, R. J., Murphy F.V. IV, Ogle, J. M., Tarry, M. J., Wimberly, B.T. and Ramakrishnan, V. (2001). Atomic structures of the 30S subunit and its complexes with ligands and antibiotics. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 66, 17-32.

Clemons, W.M. Jr., Brodersen, D.E., McCutcheon, J.P., May, J.L.C., Carter, A.P., Morgan-Warren, R.J., Wimberly, B.T. and Ramakrishnan, V. (2001). Crystal structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit from Thermus thermophilus. Purification, crystallization and structure determination. J. Mol. Biol. 310, 827-843. Medline Abstract or PDF file

Ogle, J.M., Brodersen, D.E., Clemons, W.M. Jr., Tarry, M.J., Carter, A.P. and Ramakrishnan, V. (2001). Recognition of cognate tRNA by the 30S ribosomal subunit. Science, 292, 897-902.Medline Abstract or PDF file

Ramakrishnan, V. and Moore, P.B. (2001). Atomic structures at last: the ribosome in 2000. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 11, 144-154.Medline Abstract or PDF file

Carter, A.P., Clemons, W.M. Jr., Brodersen, D.E., Morgan-Warren, R.J., Wimberly, B.T. and Ramakrishnan, V. (2001). Crystal structure of an initiation factor bound to the 30S ribosomal subunit. Science 291, 498-501.Medline Abstract or PDF file.

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Brodersen, D.E., Clemons, W.M. Jr., Carter, A.P., Morgan-Warren, R.J., Wimberly, B.T. and Ramakrishnan, V. (2000). The structural basis for the action of the antibiotics tetracycline, pactamycin, and hygromycin B on the 30S ribosomal subunit. Cell 103, 1143-1154. Medline Abstract or PDF file

Wimberly, B.T., Brodersen, D.E., Clemons, W.M. Jr., Carter, A.P., Morgan-Warren, R.J., Vonrhein, C., Hartsch, T. and Ramakrishnan, V. (2000). Structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit. Nature 407, 327-339.Medline Abstract or PDF file

Carter, A.P., Clemons, W.M. Jr., Brodersen, D.E., Morgan-Warren, R.J., Wimberly, B.T. and Ramakrishnan, V. (2000). Functional insights from the structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit and its interactions with antibiotics. Nature 407, 340-348. Medline Abstract or PDF file

Allard, P., Rak, A. V., Wimberly, B. T., Clemons, W. M., Jr., Kalinin, A., Helgstrand, M., Garber, M. B., Ramakrishnan, V. & Härd, T. (2000). Another piece of the ribosome: Solution structure of S16 and its location in the 30S subunit. Structure Fold Des. 8, 875-882. Medline Abstract

Shu, F., Ramakrishnan, V. & Schoenborn, B. P. (2000). Enhanced visibility of hydrogen atoms by neutron crystallography on fully deuterated myoglobin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97, 3872-3877. Medline Abstract or PDF file

Ramakrishnan, V., Capel, M.S., Clemons, W.M. Jr., May, J.L.C., and Wimberly, B.T. (2000). Progress towards the crystal structure of a bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit. In The Ribosome. Structure, Function, Antibiotics and Cellular Interactions (Garrett, R.A., Douthwaite, S.R., Liljas, A., Matheson, A.T., Moore, P.B. and Noller H.F., eds), ASM Press, Washington D.C.

White, S.W., Clemons, W.M., Davies, C., Ramakrishnan, V. and Wimberly, B.T. (2000). Structure of bacterial ribosomal proteins: High resolution probes of the architecture and mechanism of the ribosome. In The Ribosome. Structure, Function, Antibiotics and Cellular Interactions (Garrett, R.A., Douthwaite, S.R., Liljas, A., Matheson, A.T., Moore, P.B. and Noller H.F., eds), ASM Press, Washington D.C.

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Clemons, W.M. Jr., May, J.L.C., Wimberly, B.T., McCutcheon, J.M., Capel, M.S. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1999). Structure of a bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit at 5.5 A resolution. Nature 400, 833-840. Medline Abstract or PDF file

Wimberly, B.T., Guymon, R., McCutcheon, J.P., White, S.W. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1999). A detailed view of a ribosomal active site: the structure of the L11-RNA complex. Cell 97, 491-502. Medline Abstract or PDF file.

McCutcheon J.P., Agrawal,  R.K., Philips, S.M., Grassucci, R.A., Gerchman S,E., Clemons, W.M. Jr, Ramakrishnan, V. and Frank, J. (1999). Location of translational initiation factor IF3 on the small ribosomal subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96, 4301-4306.  Medline Abstract or PDF file.

Clemons, W.M. Jr., Gowda, K., Black, S.D., Zwieb, C. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1999). Crystal structure of the conserved subdomain of human protein SRP54M at 2.1 Å resolution: evidence for the mechanism of signal peptide binding. J. Mol. Biol. 292, 697-705. Medline Abstract or PDF file.

Angus-Hill, M.L., Dutnall, R.N., Tafrov, S.T., Sternglanz, R. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1999). Crystal structure of the histone acetyltransferase Hpa2: A tetrameric member of the Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily. J. Mol. Biol. 294, 1311-1325. Medline Abstract or PDF file.

Dutnall R.N., Tafrov S.T., Sternglanz, R., Ramakrishnan, V. (1999). Structure of the yeast histone acetyltransferase Hat1: insights into substrate specificity and implications for the Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 63, 501-507.

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Dutnall, R.N., Tafrov, S.T., Sternglanz, R. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1998). Structure of the histone acetyltransferase Hat1: a paradigm for the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily. Cell 94, 427-438. Medline abstract or PDF file.

Zhou, Y.-B., Gerchman, S.E., Ramakrishnan, V., Travers, A. and Muyldermans, S.V. (1998). Position and orientation of the globular domain of linker histone H5 on the nucleosome. Nature 395, 402-405.Medline abstract.

Ramakrishnan, V. and White, S.W. (1998). Ribosomal protein structures: insights into the architecture, machinery and evolution of the ribosome. Trends Biochem Sci. 23, 208-212. Medline abstract or PDF file

Clemons, W.M. Jr., Davies, C., White, S.W. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1998). Conformational variability of the N-terminal helix in the structure of ribosomal protein S15. Structure 6, 429-438. Medline abstract, or PDF file.

Davies C., Bussiere D.E., Golden B.L., Porter S.J., Ramakrishnan V., White S.W. (1998). Ribosomal proteins S5 and L6: high-resolution crystal structures and roles in protein synthesis and antibiotic resistance. J. Mol. Biol. 279, 873-888. Medline abstract, or PDF file.

Davies C., Gerstner R.B., Draper D.E., Ramakrishnan V, White S.W. (1998). The crystal structure of ribosomal protein S4 reveals a two-domain molecule with an extensive RNA-binding surface: one domain shows structural homology to the ETS DNA-binding motif. EMBO J. 17, 4545-4558. Medline abstract , or PDF file.

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Ramakrishnan, V. (1997). Histone H1 and chromatin higher-order structure. Crit.Rev. Eukaryotic Gene Expr. 7, 215-230. Medline abstract.

Dutnall, R.N. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1997). Twists and turns of the nucleosome: tails without ends. Structure 5, 1255-1259. Medline abstract.

Wimberly, B.T., White, S.W. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1997). The structure of ribosomal protein S7 at 1.9 Å resolution reveals a b-hairpin motif that binds double-stranded nucleic acids. Structure 5, 1197-1198. Medline abstract or PDF file.

Ramakrishnan, V. (1997). Histone structure and the organization of the nucleosome. Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 26, 83-112. Medline abstract.

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Ramakrishnan, V. and Biou, V. (1996). Treatment of MAD data as a special case of MIR. Meth. Enzymol. 276, 538-557. Medline abstract.

Hoffman DW, Cameron CS, Davies C, White SW, Ramakrishnan V (1996). Ribosomal protein L9: a structure determination by the combined use of X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy. J Mol. Biol. 264, 1058-1071. Medline abstract.

Davies, C., Ramakrishnan, V. and White, S.W. (1996). Structural evidence for specific S8-RNA and S8-protein interactions within the 30S ribosomal subunit: ribosomal protein S8 from Bacillus stearothermophilus at 1.9 A resolution. Structure 4, 1093-1104. Medline abstract or PDF file.

Goytisolo, F.A., Gerchman, S.E., Yu, X., Rees, C., Graziano, V., Ramakrishnan, V. and Thomas, J.O. (1996). Identification of two DNA-binding sites on the globular domain of histone H5. EMBO J. 15, 3421-3429. Medline abstract.

Jayshree, T.N., Ramakrishnan, V. and White, S.W. (1996). Solution structure of prokaryotic ribosomal protein S17 by high resolution NMR spectroscopy. Biochemistry35, 2845-2853. Medline abstract.

Davies, C., White, S.W. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1996). The crystal structure of ribosomal protein L14 reveals an important organizational component of the translational apparatus. Structure 4, 55-66. Medline abstract.

Hamiche, A., Schultz, P., Ramakrishnan, V., Oudet, P. and Prunell, A. (1996). Linker Histone-dependent DNA Structure in Linear Mononucleosomes. J. Mol. Biol. 257, 30-42. Medline abstract.

Graziano, V., Gerchman, S.E., Schneider, D.K. & Ramakrishnan, V. (1996). Neutron scattering studies on chromatin higher-order structure. Basic Life Sci. 64 127-136. 16377566 Medline abstract.

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Ramakrishnan, V. (1995). The histone fold: evolutionary questions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 92, 11328-11330. Medline abstract.

Biou, V., Shu, F. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1995). X-ray crystallography shows that translational initiation factor IF3 consists of two compact a/b domains linked by an a-helix. EMBO J 14, 4056-4064. Medline abstract.

Ramakrishnan, V., Davies, C., Gerchman, S.E., Golden, B.L., Hoffmann, D.W., Jaishree, T.N., Kycia, J.H., Porter, S. and White, S.W. (1995). Structures of Prokaryotic Ribosomal Proteins: Implications for RNA-Binding and Evolution. Biochem. Cell Biol. 73,979-986 (invited symposium paper). Medline abstract.

Kycia, J.H., Biou, V., Shu, F., Gerchman, S.E., Graziano, V. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1995). Prokaryotic translation initiation factor IF3 is an elongated protein consisting of two crystallizable domains. Biochemistry 34, 6183-6187. Medline abstract.

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Davies, C., Gerchman, S.E., Kycia, J.H., McGee, K., Ramakrishnan, V. and White, S.W. (1994). Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of bacterial ribosomal protein L14. Acta Cryst. D50, 790-792.

Ramakrishnan, V. (1994). Histone structure. Curr. Opin. Struc. Biol.4, 44-50.

Graziano, V., Gerchman, S.E., Schneider, D. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1994). Histone H1 is located in the interior of the 30 nm filament. Nature368, 351-354. Medline abstract.

Gerchman, S.E., Graziano, V. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1994). Expression of chicken linker histones in E. coli: Sources of problems and methods to overcome some of the difficulties. Protein Expression and Purification5, 242-251. Medline abstract.

Cerf, C., Lippens, G., Ramakrishnan, V., Muyldermans, S., Segers, A., Wyns, L., Wodak, S.J. and Hallenga, K. (1994). Homo- and heteronuclear two-dimensional NMR studies of the globular domain of histone H1: full assignment, tertiary structure, and comparison with the globular domain of histone H5. Biochemistry 33, 11079-11086. Medline abstract.

Hoffmann, D.W., Davies, C., Gerchman, S.E., Kycia, J.H., Porter, S.J., White, S.W. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1994). Prokaryotic ribosomal protein L9: A bi-lobed RNA binding protein. EMBO J. 13, 205-212. Medline abstract.

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Golden, B.L., Ramakrishnan, V. and White, S.W. (1993). Ribosomal protein L6: Structural evidence of gene duplication from a primitive RNA-binding protein. EMBO J. 12, 4901-4908. Medline abstract.

Golden, B.L., Hoffmann, D.W., Ramakrishnan, V. and White, S.W. (1993). Ribosomal protein S17: Characterization of the three-dimensional structure by 1H and 15N-NMR. Biochemistry 32, 12812-12820. Medline abstract.

Cerf, C., Lippens, G., Muyldermans, S., Segers, A., Ramakrishnan, V., Wodak, S.J., Hallenga, K. and Wyns, L. (1993). Homo- and heteronuclear 2D NMR studies of the globular domain of H1: Sequential assignment and secondary structure. Biochemistry 32, 11345-11351. Medline abstract.

Ramakrishnan, V., Finch, J.T., Graziano, V., Lee, P.L. and Sweet, R.M. (1993). The crystal structure of the globular domain of histone H5 and its implications for nucleosome binding. Nature 362, 219-223. Medline abstract.

Ramakrishnan, V., Gerchman, S.E., Golden, B.L., Hoffmann, D.W., Kycia, J.H., Porter, S.J. and White, S.W. (1993). Structural studies on prokaryotic ribosomal proteins. In The Translational Apparatus (eds. K. Nierhaus, F. Franceschi, A.R. Subramanian, V.A. Erdmann, and B. Wittmann-Liebold), pp 533-544, Plenum Press, New York.

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Ramakrishnan, V. and White, S.W. (1992). The structure of ribosomal protein S5 reveals sites of interaction with 16S rRNA. Nature 358, 768-771. Medline abstract.

Mangel, W.F., Lin, B. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1991). Conformation of one- and two-chain high molecular weight urokinase by small-angle neutron scattering and vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 9408-9412. Medline abstract.

Ramakrishnan, V., Patthy, L. and Mangel, W.F. (1991). Conformation of lys-plasminogen and kringle 1-3 fragment of plasminogen analyzed by small-angle neutron scattering. Biochemistry 30, 3963-3969. Medline abstract.

Ramakrishnan, V. and Gerchman, S.E.(1990). Cloning, sequencing and overexpression of genes for ribosomal proteins from B. stearothermophilus. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 880-885. Medline abstract.

Graziano, V., Gerchman, S.E., Wonacott, A.J., Sweet, R.M., Wells, J.R.E., White, S.W. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1990). Crystallization of the globular domain of histone H5. J. Mol. Biol. 212, 253-257. Medline abstract.

Graziano, V. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1990). Interaction of HMG14 with chromatin. J. Mol. Biol. 214, 897-910. Medline abstract.

Mangel, W.F., Lin, B.H. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1990). Characterization of an extremely large, ligand-induced conformational change in plasminogen. Science 248, 69-73. Medline abstract.

Ramakrishnan, V. (1990). Fundamentals of Neutron Scattering. In Protein Structure and Engineering (Jardetsky, O. and Niccolini, C. eds.), pp 49-60, Plenum Press, New York. (Invited talk at a NATO summer school in Erice, Italy, July 1989).

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Graziano, V., Gerchman, S.E. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1988). Reconstitution of chromatin higher-order structure from histone H5 and depleted chromatin. J.Mol. Biol. 203, 997-1007. Medline abstract.

Capel, M.S. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1988). Neutron scattering topography of the proteins of the small ribosomal subunit. Methods in Enzymology, 164, 117-130. Medline abstract.

Wignall, G.D., Christen, D.K., and Ramakrishnan, V. (1988). Instrumental resolution effects in small-angle neutron scattering. J. Appl. Cryst.21, 438-451.

Fisher, L.W., Melpolder, S.M., O'Reilly, J.M., Ramakrishnan, V. and Wignall, G.D. (1988). Neutron scattering from interfacially polymerized core-shell latexes. J. Colloid Sci. 123, 24-34.

Gerchman, S.E. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1987). Chromatin higher-order structure studied by neutron scattering and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 84, 7802-7807. Medline abstract.

Capel, M.S., Engelman, D.M., Freeborn, B.R., Kjeldgaard, M., Langer, J.A., Ramakrishnan, V., Schindler, D.G., Schneider, D.K., Schoenborn, B.P., Sillers, I.-Y., Yabuki, S. and Moore, P.B. (1987). A complete mapping of the proteins in the small ribosomal subunit of Escherichia coli. Science238, 1403-1406. Medline abstract.

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Ramakrishnan, V. (1986). Distribution of protein and RNA in the 30S ribosomal subunit. Science 231, 1562-1564. Medline abstract.

Ramakrishnan, V., Graziano, V. and Capel, M. (1986). A role for proteins S3 and S14 in the 30S ribosomal subunit. J. Biol. Chem. 261, 15049-15052. Medline abstract.

Ramakrishnan, V. (1986). Scattering studies on ribosomes in solution. Physica 136B,232-235.

Schoenborn, B.P., Ramakrishnan, V. and Schneider, D. (1986). Hydrogen-deuterium exchange in structural biology. Physica 137B, 214-222.

Ramakrishnan, V. (1985). A treatment of instrumental smearing effects in circularly symmetric small angle scattering. J. Appl. Cryst.18, 42-46.

Kagawa, Y., Yoshida, M., Kihara, H. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1985). Active site in proton translocating ATPase. In Progress in Biiorganic Chemistry and Molecular Biology, (Ovchinnikov, Y., ed.), pp 175-181, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam.

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Wobbe, C.R., Mitra, S. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1984). The capsid structure of Kilham Rat Virus by small angle neutron scattering. Biochemistry23, 6565-6569. Medline abstract.

Donnelly, M.I., Hartman, F.C. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1984) The shape of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in solution as inferred from small angle neutron scattering. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 406-411. Medline abstract.

Donnelly, M.I., Ramakrishnan, V., and Hartman, F.C. (1984). Chemical and physical characterization of the activation of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. In Advances in Photosynthesis Research, (Sybesma, C., ed.) Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, Netherlands.

Moore, P.B., Engelman, D.M., Langer, J.A., Ramakrishnan, V., Schindler, D.G., Schoenborn, B.P., Sillers, I-Y. and Yabuki, S. (1984). Neutron Scattering and the 30S ribosomal subunit of E. coli. In Neutrons in Biology (B.P. Schoenborn, ed.), pp 73-92, Plenum Press, New York.

Ramakrishnan, V., Capel, M., Kjeldgaard, M., Engelman, D.M. and Moore, P.B. (1984). The positions of proteins S14, S18 and S20 in the 30S ribosomal subunit of E. coli. J. Mol. Biol. 174, 265-284. Medline abstract.

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Uberbacher, E.C., Ramakrishnan, V., Olins, D.E., and Bunick G.J. (1983) Neutron scattering studies of nucleosome structure at low ionic strength. Biochemistry22,4916-4923. Medline abstract.

Ramakrishnan, V., Darszon, A. and Montal, M. (1982). A small angle X-ray scattering study of a rhodopsin-lipid complex in hexane. J. Biol. Chem.258, 4857-4860. Medline abstract.

Ramakrishnan, V., Yabuki, S., Sillers, I.-Y., Schindler, D.G., Engelman, D.M., and Moore, P.B. (1981). Positions of proteins S6, S11 and S15 in the 30S ribosome of E. coli. J. Mol. Biol. 153, 739-760. Medline abstract.

Ramakrishnan, V. and Moore, P.B. (1981). The analysis of neutron distance data. J. Mol. Biol. 153, 719-738. Medline abstract.

Ramakrishnan, V., Darszon, A., Philipp, M. and Montal, M. (1980). Rhodopsin in model membranes: The kinetics of channel opening and closing in rhodopsin containing planar lipid bilayers. Ann. N.Y. Academy of Sciences 358, 36-43. Medline abstract.

Ramakrishnan, V. and Tanaka, T. (1977) Green's function theory of the ferroelectric phase transition in potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Phys. Rev. B 16, 422-427.

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